Translation Studies






This section covers the following areas of study:

  1. - History of Translation
  2. - Theory of Translation
  3. - Didactics of Translation
  4. - Methods of Translation
  5. - Translation for Specific Purposes: Literary, Religious, Technical, Medical,...
  6. - Audiovisual Translation
  7. - Computer-assisted Translation Tools
  8. - Machine Translation
  9. - Linguistics & Translation
  10. - Lexicology, Terminology & Documentation
  11. - Developments in Translation Studies
  12. - Research Methods in Translation Studies
  13. - Commented Translation
  14. - Assessment of Translation
  15. - Magister Theses & Doctoral Dissertations




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1- History of Translation


  The history of translation can be approached from different perspectives. One way of looking at it is through considering its development as a human activity in each region of the world and comparing it to the other regions. Thus, each civilization will have its own history. This kind of research can be narrowed down by studying the history of translation in every country of the world to see its contribution in the development of the overall translation movement which is bridging the gap between the different cultures and peoples.
     Therefore, we may have to explore the history of translation by looking at its development in:
  • The Western World
  • The Eastern World
  • The Arab World
    Another approach would be the examination of the history of each type of translation alone. Consequently, we would end up with the following outline:
  • Traditional types of translation
  • Modern types of translation

   
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2- Theory of Translation


This section focuses on the different theories of translation. Professor As-Safi (Petra University) surveyed most of the theories and provided an interesting account which might guide your search in this area. He pointed out that they were developed in four periods. The main theories are as follows:

- Philological Theories
- Philosophical Theories
- Linguistic Theories
- Functional Theories
- Text-type Theory
- Translational Action Theory
- Skopos Theory
Socio-linguistic Theories
Interpretative Theory
- Systems Theories
- Polysystem Theory
- Manipulation Theory
- Aesthetic Communication Theory
- Relevance Theory
- Applicable Theory.

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3- Didactics of Translation

    This area is concerned with the academic or professional teaching and training of would-be translators and researchers. Therefore, translation is not viewed as an art but as a science. That is to say, translation skills are not innate but are part of the skills which can be taught and learnt.


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4- Methods of Translation

    This area deals with the macro-strategies of translation:
1. Word-for Word Translation
2. Literal Translation
3. Faithful Translation
4. Semantic Translation

5. Communicative Translation
6. Idiomatic Translation
7. Free Translation
8. Adaptation

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5 -Translation for Specific Purposes: Religious Translation

    This kind of translation deals with the translation of the Holy Books such as the Quran, the Bible and the Old Testalment in addition to all kinds of the relative religious texts such as "Hadith".  
    For instance, there are a lot of translations of the meanings of the Holy Quran. However, It is needless to say that none of them is perfect. This does not mean they are useless, they still help to approach the understood meanings of the Quran for those who cannot read in Arabic at all. This kind of translation requires a deep knowledge of religious texts, especially the Quran the meanings of which are difficult to grasp, and of course a very good mastery of languages.

    Here are some websites which provide various translations of the meanings of the Holy Quran that we may have to review later:

https://mosshaf.com/en/main
http://tanzil.net/#19:3
http://quran.ksu.edu.sa/i2.php?l=en#aya=1_1&m=hafs&qaree=husary&trans=en_sh
*http://www.quranflash.com/home?en

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6- Audiovisual Translation

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7- Computer-assisted Translation Tools

     For professional purposes, during training, would-be translators and interpreters must be introduced to CAT tools. They must be trained to have a good command of at least one tool before graduation through a hands-on workshop the aim of which is to familiarize them with the requirements of the industry such as the delivery rate (2000-3000 words/day), the completion of the translation within tight deadlines, and the like.
    CAT also means "Computer-Aided Translation". CAT tools include the use and creation of new "Translation Memories" (TMs), "Terminology Databases" in addition to a lot of other features which help the translator increase the quality and rate of his daily output.
    
*   The most known CAT tools are:

- Trados - SDL Trados - SDLX Wordfast - Déja Vu - memoQ - Fluency 
Alchemy Catalyst  - Passolo - MetaTexis - Across 
- Fusion - Heratsome - Helium - IBM CAT tool - Idiom - J-CAT - Loc Studio - Logoport
Multicorpora - Multilizer - STAR Transit - Swordfish - Trans Suite 2000 -Uniscape CAT tool - Lingo - Language Weaver
- Fortis Translation Suite
-MemSource Cloud

*   Free/Open source software:
OmegaT - Anaphraseus 


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8- Machine Translation

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9- Linguistics and Translation

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10- Lexicology, Terminology and Documentation

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11- Developments in Translation Studies


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12- Research Methods in Translation Studies


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13- Commented Translation


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14- Assessment of Translation



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15- Magister Theses and Doctoral Dissertations




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