Translation Studies






This section covers the following areas of study:

  1. - History of Translation
  2. - Theory of Translation
  3. - Didactics of Translation
  4. - Methods of Translation
  5. - Translation for Specific Purposes: Literary, Religious, Technical, Medical,...
  6. - Audiovisual Translation
  7. - Computer-assisted Translation Tools
  8. - Machine Translation
  9. - Linguistics & Translation
  10. - Lexicology, Terminology & Documentation
  11. - Developments in Translation Studies
  12. - Research Methods in Translation Studies
  13. - Commented Translation
  14. - Assessment of Translation
  15. - Magister Theses & Doctoral Dissertations




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1- History of Translation


  The history of translation can be approached from different perspectives. One way of looking at it is through considering its development as a human activity in each region of the world and comparing it to the other regions. Thus, each civilization will have its own history. This kind of research can be narrowed down by studying the history of translation in every country of the world to see its contribution in the development of the overall translation movement which is bridging the gap between the different cultures and peoples.
     Therefore, we may have to explore the history of translation by looking at its development in:
  • The Western World
  • The Eastern World
  • The Arab World
    Another approach would be the examination of the history of each type of translation alone. Consequently, we would end up with the following outline:
  • Traditional types of translation
  • Modern types of translation
You may also want considering the audiovisual content curated for you on Youtube:
         Link: History of Translation
   
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2- Theory of Translation


This section focuses on the different theories of translation. Professor As-Safi (Petra University) surveyed most of the theories and provided an interesting account which might guide your search in this area. He pointed out that they were developed in four periods. The main theories are as follows:

- Philological Theories
- Philosophical Theories
- Linguistic Theories
- Functional Theories
- Text-type Theory
- Translational Action Theory
- Skopos Theory
Socio-linguistic Theories
Interpretative Theory
- Systems Theories
- Polysystem Theory
- Manipulation Theory
- Aesthetic Communication Theory
- Relevance Theory
- Applicable Theory.

If you want to learn more about the above-mentioned theories, check the label: Translation Theory

You may also want to consider taking a look at the audiovisual content here:


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3- Didactics of Translation

       This area is concerned with the academic or professional teaching and training of would-be translators and researchers. Therefore, translation is not viewed as an art but as a science. That is to say, translation skills are not innate but are part of the skills which can be taught and learnt.

         
          The following labels deal with each of the above-mentioned fields:Translation Didactics


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4- Methods of Translation

    This area deals with the macro-strategies of translation:
1. Word-for Word Translation
2. Literal Translation
3. Faithful Translation
4. Semantic Translation

5. Communicative Translation
6. Idiomatic Translation
7. Free Translation
8. Adaptation

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5 -Translation for Specific Purposes: 


a) Religious Translation

    This kind of translation deals with the translation of the Holy Books such as the Quran, the Bible and the Old Testalment in addition to all kinds of the relative religious texts such as "Hadith".  
    For instance, there are a lot of translations of the meanings of the Holy Quran. However, It is needless to say that none of them is perfect. This does not mean they are useless, they still help to approach the understood meanings of the Quran for those who cannot read in Arabic at all. This kind of translation requires a deep knowledge of religious texts, especially the Quran the meanings of which are difficult to grasp, and of course a very good mastery of languages.

    Here are some websites which provide various translations of the meanings of the Holy Quran that we may have to review later:

https://mosshaf.com/en/main
http://tanzil.net/#19:3
http://quran.ksu.edu.sa
*http://www.quranflash.com/home?en

b) Literary Translation


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6- Audiovisual Translation

     There are many sub-fields in this section:
       a) Transcription
       b) Audio-Description
       c) Voice-Over
       d) Dubbing
       e) Subtitling

       The following labels deal with each of the above-mentioned fields with samples: Audiovisual TranslationAudio-DescriptionSubtitling

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7- Computer-assisted Translation Tools

     For professional purposes, during training, would-be translators and interpreters must be introduced to CAT tools. They must be trained to have a good command of at least one tool before graduation through a hands-on workshop the aim of which is to familiarize them with the requirements of the industry such as the delivery rate (2000-3000 words/day), the completion of the translation within tight deadlines, and the like.
    CAT also means "Computer-Aided Translation". CAT tools include the use and creation of new "Translation Memories" (TMs), "Terminology Databases" in addition to a lot of other features which help the translator increase the quality and rate of his daily output.
    
*   The most known CAT tools are:

- Trados - SDL Trados - SDLX Wordfast - Déja Vu - memoQ - Fluency 
Alchemy Catalyst  - Passolo - MetaTexis - Across 
- Fusion - Heratsome - Helium - IBM CAT tool - Idiom - J-CAT - Loc Studio - Logoport
Multicorpora - Multilizer - STAR Transit - Swordfish - Trans Suite 2000 -Uniscape CAT tool - Lingo - Language Weaver
- Fortis Translation Suite
-MemSource Cloud

*   Free/Open source software:
OmegaT - Anaphraseus 



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8- Machine Translation


      This area introduces would-be translators and researchers to the use of automatic translation. In order to increase their productivity in the professional life, trainers care about their research skills as well their professional ones, especially if the CAT tools are available. Trainees might do research, if they are advanced learners and have good mastery of ICT, so that they solve problems related to the development of machine translation.

            The road map for this area could be as follows:
         a) History of Machine Translation
         b) Approaches of Machine Translation
         c) Integration of Machine Translation in CAT Tools.
         d) Post-editing Machine Translation
         e) Quality Assessment of Machine Translation

         The labels which are so far related to this field are as follows: Post-EditingTerminology

         Below are links of playlists regarding the above-mentioned topics:


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9- Linguistics and Translation

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10- Lexicology, Terminology and Documentation

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11- Developments in Translation Studies

         If you want to learn more about developments in Translation Studies, follow the link which will take you to a video playlist where many insightful  lectures are curated:




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12- Research Methods in Translation Studies

       This area is concerned with how to do research in the fields of translation and interpreting. If you would like to learn more, check our posts via the label: Research Methodology


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13- Commented Translation


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14- Assessment of Translation



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15- Magister Theses and Doctoral Dissertations




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